Several single item literacy screening questions appear effective in identifying literacy and health literacy skills (25). One question, ’How confident are you filling out medical forms by yourself?’ was more accurate at identifying low health literacy than other questions tested, more so even than questions based on demographic characteristics. Based on the comfort level identified, marginal health literacy and functional literacy can be predicted. A question that focuses on comfort level with medical forms also removes the focus from the patient’s literacy level. Thus, using a single question screening may be a time-efficient way to determine which patients need additional probing or information.
Conventional significance levels for testing hypotheses (acceptable probabilities of wrongly rejecting a true null hypothesis) are .10, .05, and .01. Whether the null hypothesis is rejected and the alternative hypothesis is accepted, must be determined in advance, before the observations are collected or inspected. If these criteria are determined later, when the data to be tested are already known, the test is invalid. 
"The probability of rejecting the null hypothesis is a function of five factors: whether the test is one- or two tailed, the level of significance, the standard deviation, the amount of deviation from the null hypothesis, and the number of observations."  These factors are a source of criticism; factors under the control of the experimenter/analyst give the results an appearance of subjectivity.
x P( X <= x ) x P( X <= x )
2 0,419775 3 0,647249
Please set a username for yourself.
People will see it as Author Name with your public word lists.